RGS-IBG Annual International Conference 2015

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154 Current and emerging research in transport (2): Inclusive mobility and networks
Affiliation Transport Geography Research Group
Postgraduate Forum
Convenor(s) Joanna Elvy (University of Leeds, UK)
Clare Woroniuk (Newcastle University, UK)
Chair(s) Clare Woroniuk (Newcastle University, UK)
Timetable Thursday 03 September 2015, Session 2 (11:10 - 12:50)
Room Peter Chalk - Room 2.1
Session abstract This session is aimed at postgraduate students conducting research in any aspect of transport geography and related topics. The session is open-themed but we particularly welcome papers which tackle the wider conference theme of the ‘Geographies of the Anthropocene’. In recent years we have seen an increase in the number and range of presentations in what is always a well-attended and interesting event. The session provides a relaxed atmosphere for postgraduates at any stage of their research to present their work in progress. Presenters are encouraged to submit a paper for the Postgraduate Prize and priority will be given to papers intending to enter for the Postgraduate Prize.*

*The TGRG has a small prize for the best postgraduate presentation in any TGRG session at the RGS-IBG 2015 Conference. If you wish to enter for the Postgraduate Prize a full paper should be submitted to the Chair and Secretary of TGRG, prior to the conference date for judging. For more information and to find out about entry criteria please contact Angela Curl (angela.curl@glasgow.ac.uk).
Linked Sessions Current and emerging research in transport (1): Active travel and commuting
Contact the conference organisers to request a change to session or paper details: AC2015@rgs.org
A critical evaluation of ITSO Smart Ticketing, policy, practice and outcomes
Alison Rumbles (Plymouth University, UK)
The Oyster card is recognised all over the world as a successful smart ticketing solution. Outside London, the rest of the UK has a limited range of interoperable smart ticketing schemes operating in a deregulated public transport environment. This research project has explored the role and scope of ITSO smart ticketing in the public transport industry in the UK. (ITSO was formerly an acronym for the Integrated Transport Smartcard Organisation and is now Guardian of the Crown copyright for the ITSO specification designed to facilitate interoperable smart ticketing). In particular, it has focused on the governance framework in which it is delivered, in a local context and that of the wider implications of national roll out, exploring the extent of the achievement of a stated government aim to make “the best use of smartcards and multi-operator ticketing … …while seamlessly moving from one operator, or mode of transport, to another” (Department for Transport, 2012, p.5).

A qualitative study was carried out in England with appropriate evidence gathered from 61 key industry and government personnel across the spectrum of public transport stakeholders including the Department of Transport, Passenger Transport Executives, Local Authorities, Bus Companies, Transport for London, Suppliers, Consultants and Transport Academics. An examination of the key outcomes of a multi operator, multi modal, smart ticketing project – South West Smart Applications Ltd (SWSAL) formed a key part of this piece of work to review the implementation and monitoring processes at a local level supported by a comparative Case Study based in Perth, Western Australia.

The analysis of the data gathered through the course of this project, supported by other recent, relevant government research, has led to conclusions being drawn as to the degree the stated aims of government policy have been achieved thus far, along with implications for future policy.
A holistic overview of Transport Vulnerabilities for the Elderly – the Maltese case study
Deborah Mifsud (University of Malta, Malta)
Maria Attard (University of Malta, Malta)
Stephen Ison (Loughborough University, UK)
The Maltese Islands are situated in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea with a population of 417,432 (2011). Like most Western countries, Malta has an ageing population (98,786 in 2011) which is projected to increase (NSO, 2014a). Between 2012 and 2013 the highest percentage change in the number of driving licence holders was for people above the age of 60 years (+4.2%), particularly for females (+7.1%) (NSO, 2014b). This means that the elderly population will be one of the challenges that the Maltese transport system will face in the near future.
Several interrelated factors affect mobility and travel behaviour in old age. These elements convey that transport is a requisite for older persons’ quality of life. Lack of access and problems in the transport environment make older persons suffer from social isolation, lower self-esteem and reduced independence (Victor et al., 2005; Hess, 2009). Consequently, elderly people are usually termed as vulnerable road users (Methorst, 2002). This issue is quite vague and differs according to context. Yet the three overriding factors that influence older people’s ability to move are their individual characteristics, the travel behaviour and the transport environment itself (Marsden et al., 2007).
Research on the vulnerability concept is highly lacking in the transport field particularly vis-à-vis the elderly population. Therefore, after an overview of the psychosocial theories of ageing, the study gives a thorough synopsis of the different vulnerabilities that elderly encounter within the road environment, with particular reference to the Maltese context. Such vulnerabilities are also divided per transport mode i.e. drivers, pedestrians and public transport users. Some common categorisations for these vulnerabilities are: vision and hearing; physical mobility; cognitive abilities; medical issues; the type of lifestyle; social
relations; self-efficacy and the transport infrastructure. With respect to each transport mode, the study also analyses compensation techniques.
The study will highlight the research gap with regard to the need for comprehensive studies that incorporate transport vulnerability in old age. This will be followed by an explanation of the Transport Vulnerability Index for Elderly (TVIE) that will be developed specifically for this study.
The Improvement of Bus Networks Based on GIS Technology
Yuji Shi (University of Southampton, UK)
Nick Hounsell (University of Southampton, UK)
Simon Blainey (University of Southampton, UK)
Urban growth is driving continued demand for transport within many cities, and the consequent growth in congestion together with environmental and fiscal pressures mean that the provision of effective and efficient public transport services is of crucial importance in supporting urban economies and societies. However, the current regulatory and planning environment means that road-based public transport in UK urban areas tends (with the exception of London) to be planned on a piecemeal basis, and there are often conflicts between the needs and priorities of operators, passengers and planners. In consequence, several local authorities are considering adopting an alternative regulatory environment using quality contracts, with a consequent shift towards centralised service planning. There are though no tools readily available to ensure that such planning will lead to a situation which provides a better balance between the interests of the different stakeholders. This paper describes the development of a methodology to fill this gap, using Southampton as a case study to diagnose issues with its current bus system, and to explore the corresponding improvement methods which could be applied. This methodology makes use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to develop solutions which reconcile the conflicting interests of different stakeholders. While GIS have been widely used in transit for the last two decades, and some leading generic GIS software package such as ArcGIS include embedded network analysis functions (ArcGIS. Network Analyst), transit analysis has not yet been fully integrated with such packages. This case study therefore includes the development of an integrated GIS model for bus systems in ArcGIS, which can be used to help solve design and improvement problems related to urban public transport networks. By enabling the incorporation of public transport in broader economic and land-use planning, this methodology should help cities to develop in a more sustainable way in future.
Inclusive Urban Mobility: social equity and mass transport systems in Quito, Ecuador
Gayle Wootton (Cardiff University, UK)
Despite rising levels of urban mobility, access to places, activities and services has become increasingly difficult, particularly for the marginalised urban poor who face long distances or unaffordable travel costs in order to reach places of employment, education or leisure. In cities where access to private travel is uncommon, mass transport systems are essential elements allowing citizens to participate in everyday activities. Following successes in Curitiba and Bogota, mass transit systems such as bus rapid transit have been implemented in many Latin American cities (Medellin, Buenos Aires, Lima), while others are implementing metro systems (Panama City, Guadalajara, Santiago de Chile). Many such systems are unevenly distributed throughout the city however, with poorer neighbourhoods often poorly connected to the city centre where the majority of jobs and opportunities are located.

In tandem, many Latin American nations have been debating rights-based approaches to tackling social inequality. Ecuador and Brazil have adopted the Right to the City concept as part of their constitutions and Mexico City is developing a similar city charter. A human rights dimension is relevant to the provision of transport systems recognising that ‘the right to mobility is universal to all human beings, and essential for the effective practical realisation of most other basic human rights’ (CEMR 2007). Despite this link, rights-based approaches to social equity have not been studied in the context of mass transport systems. My research attempts to address to what extent rights-based approaches have been, or can be, integrated into decisions about mass transport investment, through the case study of Quito and plans for a new metro line and connecting metrocable routes. This presentation would present preliminary analysis following field work in early 2015.