RGS-IBG Annual International Conference 2016

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231 Interdependent Mobilities in Infrastructure Networks
Affiliation Transport Geography Research Group
Convenor(s) Simon Blainey (University of Southampton, UK)
Raghav Pant (University of Oxford, UK)
Scott Thacker (University of Oxford, UK)
Chair(s) Simon Blainey (University of Southampton, UK)
Timetable Thursday 01 September 2016, Session 3 (14:40 - 16:20)
Session abstract There has in recent years been an increasing focus in both research and policy on considering infrastructure networks as interdependent systems, rather than as separate interconnected entities. This has resulted from a recognition that the functionality of transport, energy, water, waste, and ICT networks is inextricably linked, with their efficiency, effectiveness and resilience dependent on their connectivity to the other systems with which they interact. The importance of such interdependencies has been reflected in policy making, with the recent establishment of a National Infrastructure Commission by the UK government, and in the development of a range of research projects focusing on network interconnections (in other words, on infrastructure nexus thinking). This session will focus on the geographies of interdependency between transport and other infrastructure networks, examining how nexus thinking can 1) enhance existing approaches to dealing with and exploiting infrastructure interdependencies, in order to realise a more efficient, equitable and sustainable use of transport infrastructure and 2) help understand and address the impacts of interdependencies on society.
Contact the conference organisers to request a change to session or paper details: AC2016@rgs.org
I want it now! The impact of home delivery on student halls of residence and urban areas
Janet Dickinson (Bournemouth University, UK)
Tom Cherrett (University of Southampton, UK)
Jason Sit (Bournemouth University, UK)
Growth in on-line shopping has led to increased numbers of small delivery vehicles in urban areas. This negatively impacts on congestion, average traffic speeds, local air quality and global climate change. As a result, there are a number of economic and environmental reasons to better understand on-line shopping and delivery habits, particularly the potential impacts of same-day delivery services now offered by companies. In the case of student halls, several hundred individuals reside in the same postcode location but create separate delivery addresses for the logistics provider, with each student room acting as a separate customer location. Students are active in on-line shopping and this is leading to a growing number of deliveries to halls each day from various logistics providers. There is potential to consolidate these deliveries using a local distribution centre as the default delivery address to group parcels and deliver them at a set time each day on one vehicle. The positive impact of just a proportion of students and Universities adopting this strategy could be significant, with heavily congested urban areas realising substantial benefits. The potential success of such an enterprise depends on the extent to which student's value same-day delivery and how the additional channel in the supply chain created by the consolidation centre is funded long-term by the university. This paper reports findings from a questionnaire distributed to students residing in University of Southampton and Bournemouth University halls exploring on-line shopping habits, delivery preferences and opinions of a consolidated delivery service for halls. The findings demonstrate the impact of vehicle delivery movements and the challenges deliveries present to halls staff. There is support for a consolidated service; however, trust and liability are concerns. Analysis explores the scope for reduced small delivery vehicle traffic that might be achieved by capitalising on the spatial infrastructure interdependency.
Spatial stress on the electricity system from increasing electrification of private cars
Tim Chatterton (University of the West of England, UK)
Jillian Anable (University of Leeds, UK)
Sally Cairns (TRL, UK)
Simon Ball (TRL, UK)
Plans to decarbonise societies in the 21st century place a heavy reliance on electrification of a range of household energy services currently met through other energy forms, predominantly gas for cooking and space and water heating, and petroleum products for transport (e.g. UK Carbon Plan). Analysis of the consequent future energy demand is generally done on the basis of national consumption, and establishing the capacity of UK generation to supply sufficient electricity from low-carbon sources. Where local variations in demand have been taken into account these have generally focussed on domestic energy consumption. Using a new dataset from the UK Department for Transport and Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency, it is possible to estimate annual distance travelled by every private vehicle in the UK and attribute this to the address of the registered keeper at a fine spatial scale (Lower-layer Super Output Area ~700 households/1600 persons). Then using vehicle characteristics (fuel type, engine size, vehicle age) it is possible to estimate current vehicle energy use by fuel type (petrol, diesel, gas or electric) and map current energy usage from private cars, thus bridging a gap in current analyses between micro-level and national level studies. Then, using a range of scenarios regarding electric vehicle efficiency, uptake of technology and charging practices (home vs. work), assessments will be made of variations in electricity demand across the country and the impacts that this might have on the ability of local distribution grids to provide sufficient supply. Early indications from the work suggest that increases in electricity demand from a like-for-like transfer to electric vehicles across the country would put an implausible demand on the national electricity supply, and that even partial adoption may cause problems for local supply infrastructure where uptake rates are high. However, wider trends in patterns of mobility, along with specific changes in behaviour associated with EV acquisition mean that this isn't likely to happen. But consequently future scenario work should do more to encompass changes in patterns of behaviour rather than simply technological uptake.
Towards a Multi-Scale Multi-Modal Model of Infrastructure Interdependence
Simon Blainey (University of Southampton, UK)
Raghav Pant (University of Oxford, UK)
Scott Thacker (University of Oxford, UK)
Long-term modelling of the future demand for, capacity of, and risks to national infrastructure systems forms a crucial part of planning for such systems. In order to address this need the Infrastructure Transitions Research Consortium (ITRC) developed the National Infrastructure Systems Model family, which includes separate models for the performance and vulnerability of transport infrastructure in the UK. The performance model comprises a local authority level representation of road and rail infrastructure networks, overlaid with a set of airport and seaport nodes. It contains functionality to enable modelling of a range of future changes to transport infrastructure and transport policy, with linkages to national models of demographics, economics and the energy system. The vulnerability model links transport infrastructure to spatial models covering of a range of potential hazard events, allowing quantification of the risk of infrastructure failure and of knock-on impacts via interdependencies with other infrastructure systems. The NISMOD system has been recently been used to carry out an assessment of Infrastructure UK's National Infrastructure Pipeline, and is currently contributing to a National Needs Assessment for the UK's National Infrastructure Commission. Further work is now underway as part of the EPSRC-funded MISTRAL project to enhance and integrate these models and enable them to operate at a range of spatial scales. This includes enhanced representation of international linkages, with the impacts of changes to cross-border passenger and freight flows captured via an input-output model. It will also permit a more detailed representation of local transport networks (and associated linkages with other infrastructure systems) through the inclusion of a multi-modal OD trip matrix based on a combination of modelled and observed transport demand data. This paper will set out the modelling approach being adopted for the MISTRAL project, and discuss some of the problems which have to be tackled when attempting to model an extremely heterogeneous set of infrastructure assets as an interdependent system.