RGS-IBG Annual International Conference 2013

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17 Spaces of entrepreneurship: from local to global and back again
Convenor(s) et al (.)
Chair(s) Andrew Jones (City University of London, UK)
Timetable Wednesday 28 August 2013, Session 1 (09:00 - 10:40)
Room Skempton Building, Room 060c
Session abstract This session has been convened by the conference organisers from papers submitted to open sessions.
Contact the conference organisers to request a change to session or paper details: AC2013@rgs.org
Public/Gong公 and Private/Si私in Chinese Contexts
Chaoqun Liu (Durham University, UK)
This paper attempts a genealogy of the concepts of 'gong' (public) and 'si' (private) in Chinese history. The word 'gong' came out earlier than 'si', and was related to the people in a dominant state and places with ceremonial significance in an ancient community. With the emergence of the concepts of 'si' (private), 'gong' was constructed gradually as the opposition of 'si' and developed closer connections with ideas and practice of government while its connotation of communal was retained. In most of Chinese history, the moral superiority of gong over si was obvious. However, the moral power of gong was rooted in the principles of heaven (seen as the largest and toppest gong), by which the moral position between the kingship/state/government (ordinary gong) and (collective) private individuals (ordinary si) can reverse. The traditional understanding of public and private and their relations has been further complicated by importing western theories of the state, civil society, public sphere, etc. from the late 19th century. Land politics in Republican Beijing and during the early decades of the PRC will be used as a lens to see how all these ideas around going/si imprint on modern China’s practice.
Creative Industry clusters and constructing regional advantage – the case of Baden-Württemberg
Helena Acheson (MFG, Germany)
Konstantin Schneider (MFG, Germany)
Valentina Grillea (MFG, Germany)
The paper would address the importance of creative industries (CI) in Baden-Württemberg (BW), presenting the first political activities to support this sector with the help of the meta-cluster “Netzwerk Kerativwirtschaft” on the regional level. On the international level the European CReATE project developed a methodology for long term strategies in CI.

Development of Creative industries in Baden-Württemberg:
Baden-Württemberg is globally recognized for its large and successful companies in the field of machinery, automotive and chemicals. What is not so well known is, that in proximity to these traditional sectors a very large CI sector has co-evolved. Today in BW ca. 150.000 work in the creative sector (Automotive: 240.000; Machinery 310.000) . Thus BW can be seen as a great example, that path-dependency and technological trajectories in a region are not only relevant for the development and evolution in a specific sector and associated technological fields. It also has a large impact for the development of other seemingly unrelated sectors (e.g. CI), which are, on a first sight, completely different to the traditional focus of the region.

Political Support for Creative Industries in Baden-Württemberg:
Historically cluster and network development in BW is focused on technological innovations, with a strong underpinning R&D base. But political interest in the role of CIs in the innovation processes has grown and the BW Government has invested in a solid CI -support base, including the establishment of a meta-cluster “Netzwerk Kreativwirtschaft”, which seeks to promote sectorial, cross-sectorial and inter-cluster cooperation. Leveraging these investments, the EU project CReATE assessed the growth potential at the interface between the CI sector and new technology trends from the ICT sector. The project focused on CI and ICT clusters on a national and international level in order to develop a common strategy.
Urban Governance of Emerging Creative Spaces: Guangzhou’s Redtory and T.I.T
Michael Waibel (University of Hamburg, Germany)
Philipp Zielke (University of Hamburg, Germany)
Creative spaces are a relatively new urban phenomenon in China. They can be regarded as a spatial manifestation of the country’s “Second Transition” (Bottelier 2007), that is the attempt to upgrade towards an economy based on innovation and knowledge. This paper seeks to analyze the development of a political framework to govern creative spaces in the city of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province and spearhead of the China’s “First Transition.” In particular, modes of governance will be identified regarding the development of creative spaces at the local level. Theoretically, the analysis is embedded within an analytical governance framework derived from the approaches of Pierre (1999) and DiGaetano and Strom (2003). The research is based upon qualitative interviews with the involved stakeholders and local experts, as well as on extensive document analysis. Every level of administration—the national the Guangdong province, and even Guangzhou’s districts—has elaborated specific policies to foster creative industries, protect industrial heritage and, in many cases, convert brownfield sites into creative spaces. The Redtory Art + Design Factory (红专厂艺术区) and the T.I.T Creative Industry Zone (T.I.T创意园) have been chosen as case studies illuminating these processes, with both exhibiting a different development path. Whereas Redtory experienced an initial bottom-up development phase driven by a private company and artists, T.I.T. is a typical example of a top-down, planned zone development. Comparing the development of both creative spaces promises further insights into how decisions are made (governing logic), the key decision makers and their relations (governing relations). It will be shown that emergent modes of government actually combine elements of different models. Consequently, this paper suggests the application of a new mode of governance that considers the manifold influences of the local state, the pragmatic alliances of the local state with the private sector, the personal patronage of local developments by high-ranking politicians and the pursued political objectives.
Flows of Guanxi between China and Nigeria: An Ethnographic Study of Chinese Petty Entrepreneurship
Hai Xiao (The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China)
With a view to potential markets, many Chinese small entrepreneurs migrate to Africa in search of fortune and wealth. Based on participant observation with an experienced Chinese businessman’s social networks, this paper will map his networking strategies in three locales: Jiangxi - the base of his social capital in Mainland China, Guangzhou - the hub of his social networks in a coastal province of China, and Lagos - the frontier of his social relations in Nigeria. Drawing from specificities of the cases of independent migrants, I will cover variations in the general patterns of Chinese petty entrepreneurship in Nigeria, such as lifestyle as both a spur and constraint on migration along with economic motives for migration. Moreover, I will illustrate the locality of guanxi in two contexts: the position of a locale in hierarchical relations between the central and local governments in China; the position of a locale in individuals’ perception of the extent that people are able to practice guanxi. Lastly, I will illustrate the need for further studies on the interplay of the two localities in the host country and country of origin in the context of China-Africa links, and how localities affect individuals’ transnational petty entrepreneurship.
Learning globally to go local? Brand and retail strategies of local clothing businesses in Vietnam
Lotte Thomsen (Copenhagen Business School, Denmark)
This paper examines how a number of Vietnamese clothing producers currently shift their focus from global to local markets. This shift is notable since developing country clothing producers have otherwise been overly focused on the global market during the past three decades. Based on extensive fieldwork in Vietnam, the paper examines the extent to which these firms are capable of reinventing themselves as own-brand and own-retail players in the domestic market. In doing so, it discusses how the skills acquired by working in global value chains translate into upgrading opportunities that are useful at the local market, and suggests that few skills are transferable in reality.